The Celts measured time not by days but by nights. beginning at dusk instead of dawn. With Samhain when the crops were waning. Beginning on Oct. 31st. Not Jan 1st. One of the reasons for beginning with evening, is the Celts’ reverence for the moon and certainly they followed the stars, were great astrologers in fact. Take Newgrange in Ireland. Newgrange is a 5000 year old passage grave and is situated so that the only drop of light shines through a tiny window on the Winter Solstice, Dec. 21st, remarkably close to Christmas and not a coincidence for sure, as the way of the Catholic church was to replace what pagan ideas they could with their own Christian teachings. See other posts on this blog for more information about early Christianity in Ireland.
If you have a desire to watch the stars yourself, check out this resource: Kerry International Dark-Sky Reserve for directions and information about viewing the night sky. Ireland is one of the best places on the planet to do so, as there are far fewer lights and its geographical and unpopulated location near the sea, affords a perfect view.
Solar Festivals were another way the Celts measured time.
The earliest known Celtic calendar was a lunar calendar called the Coligny calendar written in Latin characters but in Gaulish and made up of bronze plates. It divides each month into fortnights rather than weeks and begins with the full moon. (See Livingmyths.com for more information) Then of course the months were divided into sections beginning with each festival.
Imbolic Jan. 31, the beginning of winter, Lambing season and a time for women; perhaps they were thought to be most fertile during this period. The Catholic church changed this festival into St Brigit’s Day., thus Christianizing one of the Pagan goddesses.
The book at the left has many more modern traditions celebrating the Celtic festival, Beltane, which is on May 1st. It was another fire festival and in ancient times, cattle were driven between two fires, perhaps to cleanse or encourage the gods to make them fertile. All festivals included what modern celebrations do today, games, food, and joy.
Lughnasadh July 31st celebrates summer, and the God of Lugh . The festival was celebrated with competitions of skill and horse racing. In Ireland, Lughnasadh was associated with the fertility goddess, Emain Macha, who died in childbirth after being forced to race.
These are the more well-known festivals and perhaps the most celebrated. There are others to be sure, and also many more fairs, which were also cause to celebrate. For instance in my novel, the Sun Palace, I’ve a reference to the Tailtean Fair.
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